Rogue trading is a global phenomenon, with some of the biggest crimes committed in North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia.
As far as punishment goes, there appears to be little consistency in relation to the size of the losses.
The graphic shows (in US$) rogue trades that have been publicly revealed – there may be similar or bigger losses that have either gone undiscovered or kept under wraps.
Source: National Association of Insurance Commissioners (Numbers 1,4,5 and 9 converted to US$ as of 26/3/13). *Formerly Daiwa Bank
Illustration: Leandro Castelao